Archive for March, 2011

What if St. Patrick Had a Will

March 17th, 2011 3 comments


A will has no force nor effect until it is probated and the Surrogate determines that it is genuine, that the testator had testamentary capacity, that he was not unduly influenced by another person, and that he published the will before signing it. When a proposed executor submits a probate petition, he must notify all of the deceased’s heirs at law. Each must either waive his or her right to contest the will or be cited to appear in court to oppose the will. Problems arise when the testator’s family cannot be located. Petitioners frequently must hire a genealogist to locate lost heirs. The task becomes more difficult and expensive when the decedent emigrated from another country and his birthplace is unknown.

Yesterday, I met with a client who must locate the heirs of a man who was born somewhere in eastern Europe. Thinking about this problem and given that today is St. Patrick’s Day, I started wondering how difficult it would be to probate St. Patrick’s will.

Some historians have postulated that St. Patrick was not a living person, but a fictional character of legend. They’d get an argument, but not absolution, if they confessed their sinful thoughts to Father O’Shea this morning at the Cathedral which bears the Saint’s name. And they’d get a beer in their face but not in a glass if they voiced their opinion today in any Irish pub in Woodside.

For the true believers, St. Patrick is as real as the sun setting over Galway Bay.  But experts dispute his birthplace.

Various accounts have St. Patrick being born in Scotland, see: and in England, see: and in Wales, see: and in Boulogne, France (as per Dr. Lanigan, author of The Ecclesiastical History of Ireland) as referenced in this scholarly article, and, in Gaul, see this scholarly article: . To confuse things even further, Gaul was a Roman province which covered the area from France, Belgium, and westernmost Germany, see: St. Patrick was a Roman Citizen and the territory of Gaul also included the Italian Alps, even the Italians have laid claim. 

Two thing are certain. First, the genealogist’s bill would be very expensive. Secondly, everybody wants to have a piece of St. Patrick. And who can blame them. Look at all the royalties they could claim for his parades, and memorabilia.  I wonder what his wife, Sheilagh, would think about that?!?  Yes, some people in Newfoundland claim that he WAS married.  See:


While the proponent of the will would have a huge problem, his birthplace is not of concern to his many fans.  We can all share St. Patrick today, because everybody’s Irish on St. Paddy’s Day.   Slainte!  


Estate Planning for the Elderly (With Apologies to Dr. Suess)

March 9th, 2011 Comments off

It’s a dilemma that every estate planner faces. Mrs. Martinez’ grandniece, once removed, (GNOR) makes an appointment for her to make a will. At the appointed time, they arrive together . . . alone. Mrs. M. is a lovely lady somewhere between 80 and 120 years old, has a strong accent and doesn’t hear well. GNOR offers to sit in on the consultation and translate. During the introductions, GNOR explains that Mrs. M. is a widow and lives in a large, old house. Her four grown children live out-of-state. GNOR lives in Mrs. M’s basement, pays no rent, but helps with the chores. She says that Mrs. M. wants to give her a power of attorney and devise her the house when she dies. She offers:

My Aunt’s an old woman who came from Peru;
She needs an estate plan but doesn’t know what to do
Her children are absent, don’t visit or call
As God is my witness, they don’t help at all.
One is a doctor who lives in St. Paul
Another’s in Georgia and speaks with a drawl
I moved in last year when my aunt had a fall
I’m here to help her for the long haul.

At the ends of the story Mrs. M. starts to bawl. What’s the real story? Should my skin start to crawl? As I offer her a tissue and a glass of water, I suggest that I speak to Mrs. M. privately.

Many elderly people find themselves alone when their spouses die and their children are grown. They need assistance and companionship but their traditional family supports have collapsed. So they look for other options. Hopefully they have well-meaning extended family members or friends who fill the breach. But too frequently, they are preyed upon by grifting wolves who cloak themselves in a shroud of love and friendship. The lawyer’s job is to help the client tell the difference. It’s a delicate but necessary task. You must separate the client from the “helper” so that you hear the clients’ wishes without interference. It’s essential to know if he or she is able to make an independent decision and isn’t unduly influenced. If you sense that the “helper” is helping him or herself, it’s time to pull the plug on the consultation as a lawyer is ethically estopped from preparing an estate plan for a client who is unduly influenced or mentally impaired. It’s a hard call, especially when the client is a stranger and seems to be in danger. The meeting is fleeting and physical infirmities like hearing loss or speaking impairment, may make an elderly person seem mentally incompetent when they are not.

The elderly client and the “true helper” are better served when the lawyer makes careful inquiries such as I have described. If he doesn’t, the will may be denied probate when a distributee challenges it.